The kernel object namespace and Win32, part 1

The kernel object namespace is partially exposed by various Win32 APIs. Everything that allows you to create a named object that returns a kernel handle is interacting with the kernel object namespace in some form or another, and many Win32 APIs internally use the object namespace under the hood.

The kernel object namespace is fairly similar to a filesystem; there are object directories, which contain named objects. Objects can be of various different types, such as a Device object (created by a kernel driver) or an Event object, a Semaphore object, and soforth. Additionally, there are symbolic link objects, which (like filesystem links on a UNIX-based system) allow you to create one name that simply refers to another named object in the system.

Until the introduction of Windows 2000, the part of the kernel object namespace that Win32 exposed was a fairly limited and simple subset of the full object namespace available to drivers and programs using the native system call interfaces.

First, file-related APIs interact with the \DosDevices object directory (otherwise known as \??). This is the object directory that holds anything that you might open with CreateFile() and related calls, such as drive letter links (say, C:), serial ports (COM1), other standard DOS devices, and custom devices created by kernel drivers. This is why, if you are a driver, you need to explicitly specify \DosDevices\DeviceName instead of that being automatically assumed (as it is in Win32, if you call CreateFile). Otherwise, the created object name will not be easily accessible to Win32.

Secondly, there is the \BaseNamedObjects object directory. This object directory is where named Event, Mutex, Semaphore, and Section (file mapping) objects are based at when created with the Win32 API.

\BaseNamedObjects is managed and created by the Base API server dll (basesrv.dll) running in the context of CSRSS at boot time. This means that, in particular, boot start drivers cannot rely on \BaseNamedObjects as being present early in the boot process (which can be a problem if you want to share a named event object with a user mode program, from a boot start driver). \DosDevices, however, is created by the kernel itself at boot time and is generally always accessible.

In general, that is the limit to how much of the kernel namespace is directly exposed to (and used to support) Win32 prior to Windows 2000. (This is technically not quite true. There is a little used pair of kernel32 APIs called DefineDosDevice and QueryDosDevices that allow limited manipulation of symbolic links based within the \DosDevices object directory. Using these APIs, you can discover the native target names of many of the internal symbolic links (for example, C: -> \Device\HarddiskVolume2). You can also create symbolic links based in \DosDevices that point to other parts of the NT object namespace with the DDD_RAW_TARGET_PATH flag using DefineDosDevice.).

Next time I’ll go into a bit more detail as to how some of the changes to the object manager namespace work with Windows 2000, and then Windows XP, which both introduce some significant changes to how Win32 interacts with object names (first with improved multi-session support for Terminal Server and Fast User Switching, and then with how mapped drive letters work with LSA logon sessions).

5 Responses to “The kernel object namespace and Win32, part 1”

  1. Ak says:

    If the \BaseNamedObjects is initilized by csrss, where the objects of the Mutex, Semaphore, etc. that are being used by the Kernel (before the creation of csrss) are being stored?

  2. Skywing says:

    The kernel can place its named objects anywhere in the object namespace; it is not limited to the \BaseNamedObjects directory as Win32 is. You can poke around a bit with WinObj from sysinternals ( to see the other object directories besides \BaseNamedObjects. There are a couple of named objects in \KernelObjects, but these are mostly just for support for event-less critical sections and high/low memory signalling, at least until Vista.

    The vast majority of event / mutex / semaphore objects are simply unnamed, though.

  3. Ak says:

    Thanks for the replay.

    What has changed in Vista?

    Plus – do you know how WinObj works?

  4. Skywing says:

    I’ll save the Vista story for a future post…

    WinObj works by using the native system calls for enumerating directories and querying symbolic links – NtQueryDirectoryObject, for instance.